Citations and references
Citations and references are required in Academic Writing to
- Respect and acknowledge the thoughts, ideas and creations from other people's work
- Provide evidence for the ideas and arguments made in an assignment
- Give credibility to the arguments and conclusions in an assignment
- Allow your readers to find and read your sources of information
- Avoid plagiarizing or representing another person's work as your own
- Let others trace the sources and materials used to create your work
Citing is the process of including details of your sources within the text of your assignment. This is also known as in-text citation.
Examples of an in-text citation (Anglia Ruskin Harvard Style):
Cormack (1994, pp.32-33) states that "when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works".
In his work on health information, Smith (1975) states ...
Referencing is the process of acknowledging in detail all the information sources (books, journal articles, images, data, webpages etc.) that you have used in completing an assignment. References form a list with full details of sources placed at the end of an assignment or paper.
Example of a reference list (Anglia Ruskin Harvard Style):
Sweeting, M., 2018. Modern Small Satellites-Changing the Economics of Space. Proceedings of the IEEE, [online] 106(3), pp.343-361.
Available at: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8303876/figures [Accessed 6 February 2019].
Rodriguez-Alvarez, N. et. al. 2009. Soil Moisture Retrieval Using GNSS-R Techniques: Experimental Results Over a Bare Soil Field.
IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 47(11), pp. 647-85.
Kleissl, J., 2013. Solar Energy Forecasting and Resource Assessment. Oxford: Academic Press.
Citing and referencing at the International Space University
You have to use the Anglia Ruskin Harvard System of Referencing.
All your citations and references should match the style you are using exactly, including any punctuation, capitalization, italics and bold, and you should use the same referencing style throughout your assignment.
Use our Quick guide to Anglia Ruskin Harvard system.