Space systems supporting security and defence : a new european approach - Toulouse (Ancien Observatoire de Lolimont, 1 avenue Camille Flammarion, 31505, France) : Académie de l'Air et de l'Espace, 2018. - 1 online resource (31 p.): .
Includes bibliographical references. - ISBN 978-2-913331-74-7.
The present AAE dossier tackles the question of space systems to meet defence and security needs. These are not weapons programmes in the traditional sense since they involve setting in orbit space systems that are shared between participants. Their development through European cooperation should thus be simpler, and yet the many failed attempts in the past thirty years prove the contrary. The present dossier endeavours to analyse this situation and puts forward an entirely different approach for the next generation of space systems, based on the now well-proven capability of European industry to deliver a range of telecommunication, observation, positioning/navigation and even electronic intelligence systems capable of meeting the defence and security needs of states.
Although the literature provides broad evaluation of the technical, scientific, and international requirements for lunar base activities, it contains significant gaps in evaluating the rationales for returning to the Moon and the sustainability of these proposals. Sustainability is important to consider for a lunar base evolution to ensure that proposals are feasible and ethical for the long term. To address this insufficiency, this project reviewed existing lunar activity plans and developed Lunar Sustainability Goals and rationales, which can be integrated into currently planned lunar surface missions. These fifteen goals, developed in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space(COPUOS) Long Term Sustainability of Outer Space Guidelines, and in consultation with external advisors, are:(1) Open Access, (2) Peaceful Purposes, (3) Diversity and Opportunity, (4) International Cooperation, (5) Education and Outreach, (6) Environmental Protection, (7) Heritage Protection, (8) Health and Safety, (9) Sustainable Transportation, (10) Standardization, (11) Space Debris Mitigation, (12) Zero Waste, (13) Sustainable Energy, (14) Sustainable In Situ Resource Utilization, and(15) Earth Applications. Ultimately, these goals, along with their accompanying targets and indicators, serve to inform decision makers within the space community about the viability of and potential for incorporating sustainability into planned lunar surface missions.
This report discusses on the potential of ISM as a solution to enable a self-sustaining space habitat without re-supply requirements. The report is split into two sections. The first section of the report uses the International Space Station (ISS) as an analogue to identify numerous areas where ISM can be and is leveraged during expeditions.
In the second section, a crewed deep space mission is defined as a space habitat with seven crew members beyond the Earths GEO ring for a continuous period of three years without re-supply. Since the location and duration of this mission are dissimilar to the ISS, differences in technical and crew requirements of the two space habitats are established. ISM technologies, either developed or in-development, are proposed for each of the requirements. The respective technology readiness level, challenges and risks are also mapped for each proposed technology. Furthermore, the mission is perceived through a financial, political, legal, and ethical lens.
Following the two sections, the report concludes with the added value of ISM and recommendations to any gaps identified between space habitat requirements and technology capabilities.
This report begins with a brief description of the Hermes project from its inception , demonstration, stockpiling to its eventual elimination. Finally, the reasons for the failure of the project are analyzed from four aspects including management, organization, technology, economy, and politics, and recommendation are put forward.
Investments behavior in space industry, evidence from the US and China / Liu J (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (viii, 36 p.): col. ill. .
The U.S. has received the most amount of investment for space startups, while China is the fastest growing country for space investment. Taking these 2 countries as an example, analysizing the typical investment behavior, comparing the similarities and differences between these two countries, elaborating the political rationale behind the investment in space startups.
After the case study and the analysis of political rationale , conclusions and recommendations were made to boost the development of commercial space industry.
The report will analyze the stories of explorers and historians, from the first Chinese expeditions in the West, including the European race towards the Americas and the poles, to the Space race, followed by Voyager to the future Exomars and even further in time. The report seeks to answer the question: What were the drivers of past human exploration, and how does it evolve through time, to identify what will lay ahead in the future?
The role of science fiction ideas in driving new technologies for space / Melendres P (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (v, 29 p.): col. ill. .
The significance of this report will be the new concepts and ideas extracted from the researched material that will contribute to the analysis of the relation between science fiction and space technology and will help to understand how inspiration can move humanity to create tools to reach new heights and explore the unknown.
This report starts by analyzing the historical steps that led to the appearance of the Moon Village as a concept. It then explores the current organizations and projects embodying the concept such as national agencies programs for lunar exploration and the Moon Village Association. Based on the analysis of the origins and approaches to the Moon Village, this project proposes a set of recommendation for further sustainable growth.
Characterization of magnetic multipole confinement of plasma utilizing a circular halbach array / Patel K (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (46 p.): col. ill. .
This research investigates options for decreasing the loss mechanisms in such discharges by using a circular Halbach array around the thruster plasma chamber, thereby inhibiting the recombination loss mechanism and increasing the overall efficiency of the EMP system. The circular Halbach array shall be used in conjunction with an electrothermal microwave plasma thruster in order to increase thermal energy transfer efficiency to the plasma. For the purposes of additional investigation, the overall design of the circular Halbach array will be optimized to convey the best configurations of the magnetic multipole, so that the advantageousness of certain configurations are more compatible than others. Additionally, comprehensive overview of plasma requirements during a simulated test in the software COMSOL Multiphysics will be included. This report will present, in great detail, the optimal design concept for the circular Halbach array that works best for an electrothermal microwave plasma thruster.
The lunar space elevator concept: to increase access to the Moon, enable a cislunar economy and facilitate seep space missions / Wain Hirschberg J (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (vi, 32 p.): col. ill. .
This report discusses how a lunar space elevator at L1 or L2 would function, as well as the unique benefits of each system, emphasizing that either system would enable a new age of human interaction with the Moon and beyond.
This paper aims to provide a broad analysis of the possibilities for using Artificial Intelligence (AI) to augment space exploration, both human and robotic, by introducing the reader to AI and its potential for space exploration and through setting out ten near-term and five far-term applications where AI can augment planned and future space exploration missions.
Commercialization of human exploration activities in deep space / Chafen M (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (iii, 39 p.): col. ill. .
NASA has been planning a return to deep space beyond orbit and has been balancing this with maintaining commitments to the International Space Station. To do the latter, it has sought new developments and players in the industry looking to make human access to orbit cheaper, and maybe even extend into deep space, possibly aligning with NASAs loftier goals, in a partnership that is currently ongoing, but not yet fully successful. With this project, information will be gathered on the evolution of two projects of a similar outcome, but with a different development. One has progressed under older methods used to procure spacecraft, while the other will come from one of NASAs new partners. From this research, a comparison and analysis of these two models will be made, and finally, a recommendation as to which may be best to reach deep space.
This paper presents different deployment methods (sail storage + deployment) for small sails less than one square-meter, also exploring new ideas for their storage and sails. Different solutions, such as using centrifugal forces, origami or such patterns observed in nature, or the use of shape memory alloys are examined as well as downsizing attempts of current mechanical methods.
Making small stuff do big things : applications for nanotechnology in the space sector / McGrath M (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (vi, 38 p.): col. ill. .
Nature does a phenomenal job of creating the world around us atom by atom interlinking matter. To this point, humanity has not been able to reproduce the results nature has achieved. However, the field of nanotechnology is humanitys attempt to create novel materials out of what nature has provided. The electronics industry is at the forefront of this attempt being driven by Moores law to increase computing and processing power year after year. This report identifies four primary categories of study in an effort to link the nanotechnology industry to the space industry. The four categories are nanomaterials, electronics, energy/environment, and medicine. These fields are reviewed for relevant space technologies and two key technologies were identified for further expansion: solar cell efficiency and radiation shielding and protection. Graphenes strain properties give it the potential to harness solar energies at a larger spectrum resulting in higher solar cell efficiencies. Radiation protection techniques involve nanotechnologies saturated or comprised of hydrogen since cryogenic hydrogen is the most capable shield today. Material properties are also outlined for Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes to show their potential superiority to Aluminum structures and Diamond. The report concludes with a list of recommendations in Chapter 5.
Human senses - drivers for astronaut mental well-being in space exploration / Halpin S (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (v, 36 p.): col. ill. .
There are numerous potential psychological stressors present when working and living in space (isolation, duration away from home, monotony, etc.). Providing support in the case of psychological crisis is significantly more challenging to provide than if Earth side (e.g. speed of access to facilities). One such potential psychological stressor present is the sensory experience of the space environment. It could be argued that space missions encompass sensory deprivation, by the sheer lack of contact with Earth based nature. This work aimed to examine what effects these experiences may have on human well being by evaluating current literature on the human senses as drivers for astronaut well being evaluating current information available in context of future human exploration missions needs. This analysis was conducted utilising a number of literature review methodologies. The exploration of this topic represents a significant opportunity to roadmap future research opportunities/ requirements as to ensure sensory related well being variables can be utilised in a means that maximises their positive effects on in space human populous. Recommendations shall be discussed.
Traditional chinese medicine : an opportunity to enhance space-medicine / Mao L (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (iv, 38 p.): col. ill. .
This report introduces the development history of traditional medicine in the world, as well as the evolution process of modern Western medicine, to give readers an understanding of the basics of traditional medicine and modern Western medicine. On this basis, traditional medicine and modern western medicine are compared and analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of them are summarized. This report finally focuses on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), introduces the basic theory of TCM, including the basic principles of TCM, Yin-Yang and Five Elements theory. After that, based on the relevant literature, this report lists the relevant application projects and research situation of TCM in space. On the basis of summarizing the existing facts of TCM in space diagnosis and life support, the author identifies the elements that can augment the current clinical care procedures and the evidence that exists to support the clinical implementation of TCM activities in space. Finally, an experimental concept of TCM space application is proposed, and relevant conclusions and recommendations for follow-up work are given.
The application of the blockchain technology to the space industry / Vertadier H (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (vii, 38 p.): col. ill. .
This paper aims to provide a complete analysis of the application of the blockchain technology to the space industry. Applied to space, the main characteristic underlying cryptocurrencies can bring even more power and be beneficial in the exploration of the spatial territory. Companies are starting to put the blockchain into orbit, while others are using it to optimize the development of spacecrafts and satellites. Recently, large space agencies starting to adopt the blockchain technology either on Earth or in space.
Building a low-fidelity Soyuz simulator at ISU / Romanov-Chernigovsky I (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (iv, 18 p.): col. ill. .
This report presents the design and build process of a low-fidelity simulator for the Soyuz TMA spacecraft built at the International Space University. It is designed to provide a simplified and cost-efficient rendition of the on-board instruments and controls in a Soyuz TMA spacecraft Descent Module and allow students to manually perform in-orbit manoeuvres. The report describes different design decisions made, challenges encountered, and trade-offs performed. It also covers in detail the software and hardware configurations used to achieve intended functionality, while also maintaining an aspect of aesthetic authenticity to increase the students interest in the learning process. Finally, suggested use cases for such low-fidelity systems in education, outreach and research are given.
ISU business incubator: need assessment and business model development / Abi-Fadel M (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (v, 43 p.): col. ill. .
The International Space University is currently looking at expanding the services it provides to its alumni community. Currently, ISU only offers services in education, but a service extension towards incubation services could support young space entrepreneurs and the space sector as a whole. At the same time, local and regional players are investing public funds to support space-related companies in the Grand-Est region and further develop its economy. As a first step, this report assesses the needs for a technology business incubator at ISU from the perspective of ISU students and alumni, ISU Board of Trustees, and external stakeholders. As a second step, this report lays out the evolution of business incubators from stand-alone entities supported by government programs to networked commercialization enablers, pulling funds from corporations, private investors and public programs. This research provides an understanding of the different business models that exist worldwide, across design elements and themes. This report concludes that an incubator at ISU can be beneficial to the overall economic development of the region as well as to the space community. It also concludes that the ISU incubator should adopt a hybrid model that fits the constraints and stakeholders expectations.
The Viking landers arrived on the Martian surface in 1976 to use Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) to collect data, test for organic molecules and use other biology experiments to detect microbial life on the red planet. These missions were deemed a failure due to the GCMS results being negative for the presence of indigenous organics and the data badly stored then forgotten about for over 40 years. This individual project by MSS19 student Hannah Woodward, supervised by PhD candidate Melissa Guzman and Professor Hugh Hill, explores the initial efforts to restore this data.
Resupply failure analysis and its impacts on space station operation / Liu C (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (vii, 42 p.): col. ill. .
This report studies the countermeasure and adjustment methods of space station logistic support under typical resupply failures. Firstly, a literature review of the cargo spacecraft and the previous resupply failures is presented. Secondly, two different resupply modes, i.e. Multiple-Resupply-Spacecraft (MRS-mode) and Single-Resupply-Spacecraft (SRS-mode), are discussed respectively. Considering Chinas Space Station (CSS) belongs to SRS-mode, the rest sections focus on the SRS-mode and study the influence of resupply failure on the CSS operation. Thirdly, the impacts and corresponding countermeasures of typical resupply failures are analyzed. Fourthly, the emergency planning of CSS under resupply failure is thoroughly studied, including the emergency planning process and case studies. In the case studies, the structure of CSS is introduced, the different utilization principles of docking port are discussed, and scenario simulations are implemented using the recommended port utilization principles. Ultimately, we summarize what can be learned from the failures and how to reduce the negative impacts by addressing possible measures.
Synthetic Aperture Radar and its application for ocean wind field retrieval / Zhuhui J (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (iv, 32 p.): col. ill. .
This project researches on SAR ocean wind retrieval approach and evaluates the method of DNVAR using two year s real SAR data and different background winds. Based on the literature review, the band, coverage, period and other related information of SAR missions are evaluate d, and the SAR ocean wind retrieval meth ods are analyzed. The trade off between DIRECT and DNVAR shows that DNVAR can impact on both wind direction and wind speed but takes more time to calculate the minimum of the cost function. Experiments are carried out using SENTINEL 1 SAR information as obs ervation, NDBC buoy data as in situ data GFS, ASCAT, WindSAT, and CCMP wind products as background data. Results show that DNVAR can improve the wind field accuracy when the background data is ASCAT and CCMP data. Especially , DNVAR wind speed results are much better than the official product of SENTINEL 1 wind data.
Climate change is an environmental threat, and to keep global warming under 2°C, actions are needed to prevent escalating negative effects like droughts and flooding. Cutting emissions might not suffice, and other methods might be needed. One suggested method is Oceanic Iron Fertilization (OIF), where oceans are fertilized with iron to increase primary production and sequestration of CO2 from atmosphere. OIF has been criticized as risky due to unknown side-effects. Fertilization research was explored in-depth to identify risks and opportunities, and how it could be assisted by remote sensing. The Southern Ocean has been a focus of research for OIF. This region is productive, but limited by the short growth season and lack of iron. One factor in this Southern Ocean region is whale numbers. Whales are effective fertilizers, diving deep to hunt and bringing important nutrients to the surface. Whales have been focused on this paper, as OIF within their natural habitat could resemble natural fertilization. Locating whales can be done with remote sensing. Satellites can also play a role in iron fertilization by tracking resulting algal blooms. The Southern Ocean has highest potential for OIF, and the option should be explored with remote sensing and whale knowledge.
Effects of microgravity on stem cell differentiation and proliferation / Khan S (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (iii, 49 p.): col. ill. .
Despite the abundant research on effects of microgravity on stem cells, there is no single verdict. The contradiction among researchers is due to a variety of factors such as the type of stem cells utilized, guidelines and protocols followed, type of microgravity platform utilized, and presence of other microgravity-sensitive subjects. Along with these inconsistencies, researchers face many challenges which stem from experimental, ethical, political and legal issues. Hence, a microgravity experiment was proposed to act as a stepping stone towards bypassing the flaws in current stem cell research. The purpose of this experiment is to facilitate researchers on how to avoid inconsistencies to obtain informative and repeatable results; which can provide a gateway to further investigation and understanding of stem cells.
The main challenges for earth observation, including the size of data, its complex nature, a high barrier to entry, and the datasets used for training data, are discussed, as well as the solutions that are addressing these challenges.
This paper will show how some of these techniques are currently being used in the field of earth observation. The Google Earth Engine (EE) has been chosen to process and run our scripts on publically available Landsat-7 remote sensing (RS) data catalogs. Using this RS data, it is possible to classify and discover historical algal blooms in the Baltic Sea surrounding the Swedish island of Gotland.
Current status of the Reddy Shock Tube was assessed by performing preliminary experiments centered on diaphragm characterization. The shock strength produced by rupturing tracing paper and reinforced aluminum foil, with varying layers, was assessed using a pair of Srushti dynamic pressure transducers and a Tektronix TBS 1072B-EDU dual-channel digital oscilloscope. Processing of voltage-time data with MATLAB determined that an unconfined shock tube configuration produced the fastest incident shock waves. Furthermore, diaphragms constructed from tracing paper produced stronger incident and reected shock waves than those produced by reinforced aluminum. The incident shock wave strength increased linearly with an increase in the number of diaphragm layers, up to three, after which the shock wave strength diminished. Finally, four experimental campaigns were proposed studying (i) the absorbency/reectively of materials, (ii) bactericidal effects of shock waves, (iii) shock waves in variable atmospheric compositions, and(iv) shock induced hypersonic ows.
Design of a parabolic flight experiment to test the validity of NICOM in variable gravitational conditions / Zecca F (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (xi, 83 p.): col. ill. .
To date, NICOM, a thoracic electrical bioreactance-based device developed by Cheetah Medical, seems to be a good candidate to replace VO2max test, allowing for more reliable and unaffected measurements, less time allocation for testing procedures, monitoring capabilities, and smaller equipment. However, the validity of NICOM for cardiac output measurement in space must be demonstrated: the purpose of this project is to design a complete protocol for a parabolic flight experiment, capable to reliably assess NICOM being a valid tool to measure cardiac output in variable gravitational conditions.
Utility of wearable health devices for astronaut medical support: implications for future missions / Ritter S (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (viii, 14 p.): col. ill. .
Astronauts face numerous physiological changes in the space environment that pose risks to their health. These risks have consequences for both commercial astronauts and future long duration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), particularly for lunar, deep space, and planetary visit missions. To mitigate these risks, space agencies are seeking ways to improve (1) space-based medical data collection systems, and (2) monitoring of astronaut physiological parameters in a minimally invasive manner. In particular, wearable health devices (WHDs) may provide solutions that address these problems. To assess this, this report reviews WHDs for astronaut medical support, considering vital sign measurement capabilities relevant to astronauts, system designs, use in space and analog environments, and potential challenges for use beyond LEO. Subject matter expert commentary from astronauts, a flight surgeon, engineers, and an investigator is then discussed. A case study of the Apple Watchthe most popular WHDis then provided to assess its potential space applications. And finally, recommendations to address WHD implementation challenges and proposals for future research and development are discussed. Altogether, this report serves to inform decision makers within the space community about the potential for WHDs to mitigate risks for human space exploration.
Feasibility analysis and preliminary design of Chipsat entry for in-situ investigation of the venusian atmosphere / Vivenzio S (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (vii, 44 p.): col. ill. .
This work addresses this question by providing a preliminary feasibility study of a ChipSat planetary atmospheric entry mission with the purpose of searching for traces of microscopic lifeforms in the atmosphere of Venus. A numerical model simulating the planetary entry of a spacecraft of specified geometry, in the atmosphere of any planet for which sufficient atmospheric data are available, has been implemented numerically. The results are used to create a high-level design of a ChipSat capable of cruising in the Venusian atmosphere at altitudes favorable for the existence of life. The report then presents a preliminary ChipSat mission concept, including the selection of a potential payload.
Bayesian analysis of noisy data: observations of the Moon with the ESA-Dresden 10 GHz radio telescope / Chen T (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (xiv, 66 p.): col. ill. .
Preparation for the extreme range of lunar surface temperature is essential for the success of robot and human exploration on the Moon. Much research about this topic has been carried out over the last few years. Generally, these approaches can be divided into three groups based on: the observation data, the theoretical model, and in-situ measurements. This paper presents a new Bayesian algorithm to measure the lunar surface temperature and analyze its periodical variation with respect to the Moon phases based on the observation data, which have been taken from ESA-Dresden 10 GHz Radio telescope.
With multiple space agencies planning to return humans to the lunar surface and establish a permanent lunar base, many problems are yet to be solved to enable humanity to achieve such a feat. One technology that helps to solve many of these challenges is solar 3D printing of lunar regolith. The technology has two major advantages: in-situ resource utilization and the reliability of the power source. Using lunar regolith as a building material for habitats significantly reduces the number of materials required to be sent from Earth and therefore significantly reduces the cost of building on the Moon. This report first examines lunar regolith simulant and its properties after being sintered. The current technologies of solar 3D printing are looked as well as the current state of solar tracking systems. The report then outlines the design, construction, and testing processes used to develop a solar tracking system prototype which will later be integrated into a solar 3D printer. The future steps for this integration are outlined as well as some recommendations.
Effects of Lower-Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) on fluid distribution during gravitational unloading / Harris K (Auteur). - Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France) : International Space University, 2019. - 1 electronic resource (vii, 35 p.): col. ill. .
During spaceflight, astronauts undergo numerous physiological changes. One of the most noticeable effects is the redistribution of fluid from the legs to the torso, which may significantly impact the cardiac and neuro-ocular systems. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) is a technique that can draw fluid back into the legs using a pressurized chamber sealed at the iliac crest. As space actors plan for extended deep space missions, effective countermeasures to combat the possible negative effects of fluid shifting are required. This report will outline the research conducted, and the critical gaps found in LBNP fluid movement research that must be addressed in order to proceed with adapting LBNP as a practical, comfortable, and effective countermeasure for long-duration space flight.
Earth and space 2018 : engineering for extreme environments / Malla R (Auteur); Goldberg R (Auteur); Roberts A (Auteur). - [S.l.] : American Society of Civil Engineers, 2018. - 1 online resource (1251 p.): .
This collection contains 115 peer-reviewed papers on the expanding scope of exploration of space and of challenging regions of the Earth presented at the 16th Biennial ASCE Aerospace Division International Conference on Engineering, Science, Construction, and Operations in Challenging Environments, held in Cleveland, Ohio, April 912, 2018. Topics include: regolith geotechnics, physical properties, and simulants; interactions between regolith, tools, rovers, and rocket exhaust; regolith as construction material; planetary drilling, excavation, and surface sampling; civil engineering in space; architecture; acquisition, processing, and utilization of natural space materials (in situ resource utilization, or ISRU); mechanical behavior of advanced materials; hydraulic and earth structures under extreme conditions; smart structures and sensors; structure diagnostic and monitoring methods; advanced structures and actuators; seismic, tidal, and artificial loading on structures; and structure systems in challenging environments.